Aviation Fuel or Jet Fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is clear to straw-coloured in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1 which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
Mazut-100 is a Fuel Oil that is manufactured to GOST specifications, for example GOST 10585-75 or 99. (GOST is the Russian system of standards, much like ASTM, for example). Mazut is almost exclusively manufactured in the Iran, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. This product is typically used for larger boilers in producing steam since the BTU content is high. The most important consideration (not the only consideration) when grading this fuel is the sulfur content, which can mostly be affected by the source feedstock. For shipment purposes, this product is considered a “dirty oil” product, and because viscosity drastically affect whether it is able to be pumped, shipping has unique requirements. Mazut is much like Number 6 Oil, and is part of the products left over after gasoline and lighter components are evaporated from the crude oil.
Standard Diesel Fuel (sometimes called diesel oil) comes in two grades: Diesel #1 (or 1-D) and Diesel #2 (or 2-D). The higher the cetane number, the more volatile the fuel. Most diesel vehicles use fuel with a rating of 40 to 55. You won’t have to worry about which type to use because all diesel automakers specify Diesel #2 for normal driving conditions. Truckers use Diesel #2 to carry heavy loads for long distances at sustained speeds because it’s less volatile than Diesel #1 and provides greater fuel economy.
The processing of Light Cycle Oil (LCO) for diesel fuel production by the hydrotreating (HDT) process is under general re-evaluation because of current stringent environmental regulations. The low-quality of LCO with high sulfur and nitrogen, and a high percentage of diaromatic hydrocarbons, limits the possible upgrading alternatives. A HDT step, involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and partial hydrodearomatization, is combined with a hydrocracking (HYC) step for producing (1) high-quality fuels (high-octane gasoline and ultralow sulfur diesel) and a (2) benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) enriched fraction. In this review studies regarding the HDT-HYC process for producing such products from real feedstocks are considered, with the aim to provide the state of the art developments for LCO upgrading.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to a liquid state (liquefied), at about -260° Fahrenheit, for shipping and storage. The volume of natural gas in its liquid state is about 600 times smaller than its volume in its gaseous state in a natural gas pipeline. This liquefaction process, developed in the 19th century, makes it possible to transport natural gas to places natural gas pipelines do not reach and to use natural gas as a transportation fuel.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances. cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is a mixture of 48% propane, 50% butane, and 2% pentane.
It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant , replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas.